The query macro and where clause combine to give you full control over your query.


Where is using a QueryBuilder that allows you to chain where clauses together to build up a complete query.

posts = Post.where(published: true, author_id: User.first!.id)

It supports different operators:

Post.where(:created_at, :gt, Time.local - 7.days)

Supported operators are :eq, :gteq, :lteq, :neq, :gt, :lt, :nlt, :ngt, :ltgt, :in, :nin, :like, :nlike


Order is using the QueryBuilder and supports providing an ORDER BY clause:



Post.order(updated_at: :desc)

Multiple fields

Post.order([:created_at, :title])

With direction

Post.order(created_at: :desc, title: :asc)


Limit is using the QueryBuilder and provides the ability to limit the number of tuples returned:



Offset is using the QueryBuilder and provides the ability to offset the results. This is used for pagination:



All is not using the QueryBuilder. It allows you to directly query the database using SQL.

When using the all method, the selected fields will match the fields specified in the model unless the select macro was used to customize the SELECT.

Always pass in parameters to avoid SQL Injection. Use a ? in your query as placeholder. Checkout the Crystal DB Driver for documentation of the drivers.

Here are some examples:

posts = Post.all("WHERE name LIKE ?", ["Joe%"])
if posts
posts.each do |post|
puts post.name
# ORDER BY Example
posts = Post.all("ORDER BY created_at DESC")
# JOIN Example
posts = Post.all("JOIN comments c ON c.post_id = post.id
WHERE c.name = ?
ORDER BY post.created_at DESC",

Customizing SELECT

The select_statement macro allows you to customize the entire query, including the SELECT portion. This shouldn't be necessary in most cases, but allows you to craft more complex (i.e. cross-table) queries if needed:

class CustomView < Granite:Base
adapter pg
field articlebody : String
field commentbody : String
select_statement <<-SQL
SELECT articles.articlebody, comments.commentbody
FROM articles
JOIN comments
ON comments.articleid = articles.id

You can combine this with an argument to all or first for maximum flexibility:

results = CustomView.all("WHERE articles.author = ?", ["Noah"])


The exists? class method returns true if a record exists in the table that matches the provided id or criteria, otherwise false.

If passed a Number or String, it will attempt to find a record with that primary key. If passed a Hash or NamedTuple, it will find the record that matches that criteria, similar to find_by.

# Assume a model named Post with a title field
post = Post.new(title: "My Post")
post.id # => 1
Post.exists? 1 # => true
Post.exists? {"id" => 1, :title => "My Post"} # => true
Post.exists? {id: 1, title: "Some Post"} # => false

The exists? method can also be used with the query builder.

Post.where(published: true, author_id: User.first!.id).exists?
Post.where(:created_at, :gt, Time.local - 7.days).exists?